Unit 1

Data representation, number systems, decimal to other, other to decimal, conversion and vice versa, binary coded decimal numbers, hamming code for error detection, alphanumeric codes, binary addition and subtraction, addition/subtraction of numbers in 1's and 2's complement notation for binary numbers and 9s and 10s complement notation for decimal numbers, binary multiplication and division, BCD arithmetic, floating point addition and subtraction.

Unit 2

Register Transfer Language- Register transfer, Bus and Memory transfer ( three-stage bus buffers, memory transfer), arithmetic micro-operations (Binary Adder, Binary adder-Subtracter, binary incrementer, arithmetic circuit), Logic micro-operation (list of logic micro-operations, hardware implementation), shift micro-operations(hardware implementation), arithmetic logic shift unit, instruction codes (stored program organization, indirect address), computer registers (common bus register), computer instructions (instruction set completeness), timing and control, instruction cycle (fetch and decode, types of instruction,register-reference instructions), Micro-programmed control, control memory, addressing sequencing (conditional branching, mapping of instructions, subroutine)

Unit 3

Central Processing Unit- Introduction, general register organization (control word, examples of micro-operations), stack organization (register stack, memory stack, reverse polish notation, evaluation of arithmetic expressions), instruction formats (three-address instructions, two address instructions, one-address instructions), addressing modes, data transfer and manipulation (data transfer instructions, data manipulation instructions, arithmetic instructions, logical and bit manipulation instructions, shift instructions), Program control (status bit conditions, conditional branch instructions, program interrupt, types of interrupt).

Unit 4

Input Output Organization - Introduction to peripheral devices, input output interface (I/O bus and interface modules, I/O versus memory bus, isolated versus memory-mapped I/O), asynchronous data transfer (strobe control, handshaking), modes of transfer (programmed I/O, interrupt- initiated I/O), priority interrupt (daisy-chaining priority, parallel priority, priority encoder,- 14-interrupt cycle), direct memory access ( DMA controller, DMA transfer), memory hierarchy, main memory (RAM and ROM chips, memory address map, connection of memory to processor) Auxiliary memory (Magnetic disk, magnetic tape).